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Today I will Share About Types of slotting machines | What Slotting Machine?
Slotting Machine is the most important Machine in Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Process. Read This Article Carefully. Then You Know about What Slotting Machine? and Types of slotting machines
In gas welding, gas welding flame plays a very most important role so before knowing the types of gas welding flame. firstly we have collated some Idea what is flame in gas welding?
So, without wasting your time let’s Jump Today Topic What Slotting Machine? and Types of slotting machines
What Is Slotting Machine?
Slotting machines are reciprocating machines that are mainly used to manufacture horizontal, vertical, or flat surfaces. The slotting machine is mainly used for cutting planes, forming surfaces and keyways, etc., and is suitable for single or small batch production.
A Slotter machine is defined as a machine tool uses for removing unwanted material chips from the workpiece to make splines, grooves, and more. Here the Ram (Tool attached) moves reciprocating, whereas In shaper the ram moves horizontally.
Slotter machines can be considered vertical shaper machines because both are very similar in many ways. The slotting machine is a very old type of machine and was invented by BRUNEL. The tool we use in this is the Single Point cutting Tool which is made up of High-Speed Steel.
The slotting machine is used for cutting grooves, keys, and slots of various shapes making regular and irregular surfaces both internal and external cutting internal and external gears and profiles The slotter machine can be used on any type of work where vertical tool movement is considered essential and advantageous.
Functions of Slotting Machine
The main function of a slotting machine is to remove metal from a piece of a work to bring it to the required shape and size. This is accomplished by holding the work rigidly on the machine and a reciprocating single point tool mounted on tool head. The single point tool moves along a vertical axis over the work piece. The pinion which is in mesh with the main gear gets its drive from a pulley through a belt by motor. The gear is coupled to the slotted disc. The circular motion of slotted disc is converted into the reciprocating one with the help of connecting rod. The crank pin can be formally set in the slot of slotted disc at different distances from the centre for verifying the length of the ram stroke. The position of the stroke is adjusted with the help of hand lever provided for the stroke adjustment. Slotting machine is usually provided with horizontal circular worktable, but coordinate tables are also provided some times. The table is mounted directly over a bed casting and heavy work may be placed on it. The circular table can be revolved by hand or power fed. It is graduated around its outer edges and work can thus be mounted and turned to a predetermined position, depending upon the function for which slotter is designed.
Types of Slotter Machine
Slotting machines are mostly of the following four types:
1. Precision Tool Room Slotter
2. Puncher Slotter
3. General Production Slotter
4. Keyseater Slotter
Slotter Machine Parts:
A slotter machine consists of the following parts:
- Rotating or Circular table
- Ram and tool head
- Ram drive
- Feed drive
1. Precision Tool Room Slotter
Toolroom slotter is the precision type with is used for very precise machining. It is the lighter machine and is operated at high speeds. By use, special jigs machine can handle a number of equal works on a production basis.
2. Puncher Slotter
Puncher slotter is a weighty machine and operational with a powerful motor. It is proposed to remove a large quantity of metal as of large castings or forgings. The length of the stroke is too large.
3. General Production Slotter
A production slotter is a general type of slotter used for general production work. The Drive of the ram is by means of the slotted disc with connecting rod. Flywheel is fixed to prevent shock at the end of the stroke.
4. Keyseater Slotter
Keyseaters, also identified as keyseating machines with keyway cutters, are specific machines designed to cut keyways. It is similar to vertical shapers; the dissimilarity is that the cutting tool on a key seater enters the workpiece as of bottom and cuts on down-stroke, as the tool on a shaper enters the workpiece as of the top and cuts downward. One more difference is a key seater has a guiding system over the workpiece to reduce deflection, which results in a closer tolerance cut. The process starts by clamping the workpiece to the table by a fixture or vise.
This machine can cut other straight-sided features other than keyways. They can also make blind slots, which are slots that do not enlarge through the whole workpiece.
Slotting Machine Diagram
Base or Bed
It is strengthened so that it can withstand all the cutting force and full load of the machine.
The material used for making the base is cast iron.
A column is the vertical member that is cast with the base.
In these parts of slotting machine, the driving mechanism and the feed mechanism of the ram are located.
Its front vertical face is finished in the precision to which the ram reciprocates.
It is also made up of cast iron.
It is mounted on the guideways and can be moved towards the column or away from the column using power or hand controls to feed the work lengthwise.
The top face of the saddle is finished in precision to provide guideways for the cross slide.
It is mounted on the guideways of the saddle and can be moved parallel to the face of the column.
A rotary table is a circular table which is mounted on the top of a cross slide.
A rotary table is used for holding the workpiece or a job.
This table can be rotated by rotating a worm, the worm is a mashed with the worm gear.
All these gears arrangements are made inside the table.
The table can be rotated by hand or power.
‘T’ slots on the top face of this table are cut so that any type of work or a job can be held using various clamping devices.
Circular or contour surfaces can be made with rotary tables.
Ram is the very most important parts of slotting machine because through movement of ram workpiece or a job cut and produce a desired shape.
It is fitted with a tool head and it reciprocates in upward and downward direction through guideways.
It is mounted on the guideways of the column.
A slot is cut on the body of the ram to change the position of the stroke.
Whitworth Quick Return Mechanism
A simple Whitworth quick return mechanism as shown in fig. The bull gear is mounted on a fixed hub at the rear end of the machine and it is rotated by a driving pinion from the motor. The driving plate is connected to the main shaft through the fixed hub. The main shaft is placed eccentrically with respect to the bull gear centre.
The bull gear holds the crankpin with sliding block and slides in a driving plate. So that when the bull gear rotates, imparts rotary motion to the driving plate and shaft causing the disc to rotate at the end of the main shaft.
The disc is connected to the lower end of the connecting rod eccentrically by means of a pin in a radial T-slots on the face of the disc, which converts the rotary motion of the disc into reciprocating motion of the ram connected to the top end of the connecting rod.
The Principle of a Quick Return Mechanism
The principle of quick return mechanism can be explained simply by a line diagram. A and B are the fixed centres of the bull gear and the driving plate. The crack pin and the slide block rotate in a circular path at a constant speed in a driving plate about B. This causes the disc to rotate through the main shaft.
Pin 3 on the disc rotates in a circular path about the fixed point B. The length of the ram is equal to twice the narrow of eccentricity and it is equal to 2x3B (3B= throw of eccentricity). When the slide block is at C, the ram is at the maximum upward position of the stroke and when it is at D, the ram is at the maximum downward position.
If the bull gear rotates in an anticlockwise direction and the slide block rotates through an angle CAD, the ram performs downward cutting stroke, whereas when the block rotates through an angle DAC the ram perform return stroke.
As the block rotates at a constant speed the rotation of slide block through an angle CAD during cutting stroke takes longer time than the rotation through an angle DAC during the return stroke. Thus the quick return motion is obtained.
Slotter Machine Operations
- Machining cylindrical surface.
- Flat surface Machining.
- Machining irregular surface and cam machining.
- Machining slots, keyways, and grooves.
1. Flat Surfaces Machining
The external and internal flat surfaces may be generated on a workpiece easily in a slotter machine. The work to be machined is supported on parallel strips so that the tool will have clearance with the table when it is at the extreme downward position of the stroke.
The work is then clamped properly on the table and the position and the length of the stroke is adjusted. A clearance of 20 to 25mm is left before the beginning of cutting stroke, so that the feeding movement may take place during this idle part of the stroke.
The table is clamped to prevent any longitudinal or rotary travel and the cut is started from one end of the work. The crossfeed is supplied at the beginning of each cutting stroke and the work is completed by using a roughing and a finishing tool. While machining an internal surface, a hole is drilled into the workpiece through which the slotter tool may pass during the first cutting stroke.
A second surface parallel to the first machined surface can be completed without disturbing the setting by simply rotating the table through 180° and adjusting the position of the saddle. A surface perpendicular to the first machined surface may be completed by rotating the table by 90° and adjusting the position of the saddle and cross slide.
2. Machining Circular Surfaces
The external and internal surface of a cylinder can also be machined in a slotter machine. The work is placed centrally on the rotary table and packing pieces and clamps are used to hold the work securely on the table.
The tool is set radially on the work and necessary adjustments of the machine and the tool are made. The saddle is clamped in its position and the machine is started. While machining, the feeding is done by the rotary table feed screw which rotates the able through a small arc at the beginning of each cutting stroke.
3. Machining Irregular Surfaces or Cams
The work is set on the table and necessary adjustments of the tool and the machine are made as detailed in other operation. By combining cross, longitudinal and rotary feed movements of the table any contoured surface can be machined on a workpiece.
4. Machining Grooves or Keyways
Internal and external grooves are cut very conveniently machine. A slotter is specially intended for cutting internal grooves which are difficult to produce in other machines.
External or internal gear teeth can also be machined in a slotter by cutting equally spaced grooves on the periphery of the work. The indexing or dividing the periphery of the work is done by the graduations on the rotary table.
Difference between shaper and slotter machine
- In shaper machines, the direction of cutting stroke is horizontal with slower than the return stroke. But in slotter machines, the direction of cutting stroke is vertical with slower than the return stroke.
- In shaper, Ram holding the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis whereas, in slotter, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis.
- Shaper machine is used to produce horizontal, vertical or inclined flat surfaces. Whereas in slotter machine is used for cutting keyways, grooves and slots of various shapes, for making regular and irregular surfaces both external and internal, for cutting internal gears, for handling large and for awkward jobs.
In some slotting machines, it is part of the ram.
It is used to hold the tool tightly.
A single point cutting tools are used in a slotting machine during removing any type of materials.
Speed Gear Box
In a speed gear box, power is transmitted from the main drive gear box to the sliding gears of the speed gear box via the drive shaft.
Sliding gears can be shifted to obtain the required ram speed.
FAQ for Slotting Machine
Which of the following part of slotting machine is used to hold the tool?
Tool head is the part of slotting machine which is used to hold the tool.
Slotted disc mechanism is used for?
Basically slotting machine mechanism is made up of gear,pinion,crank and slotted disc.
These combination is called as slotted disc mechanism which is used in quick return mechanism.
In slotting feed movement for table is?
In slotting feed movement for table is used longitudinal,cross and circular feed.
What is the function of ram in a slotting machine?
The main function of ram in a slotting machine is used to reciprocates the tool head by which workpiece or a job to be cut and produce a desired shape.
Which cutting tool used in a slotting machine?
Always used single point cutting tool in a slotting machine.
So, here I discussed complete details of slotting machine-like parts of slotting machine, types of slotting machine, slotting machine operation as well as also discussed in slotting feed movement for table like longitudinal, cross and circular feed.
I hope you all like these topics.